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The credits listed here are mainly related to the Tribute to Relays demo device. There are many other credits, references and links cited on specific pages on this site.   

Sounds, voices: Connections Museum of Seattle (CMoS), Evan Doorbell, Phil McCarter (SxSPhil), Leonard Hicken, Lily Tomlin, Mary Moore, Jane Barbe, and Pat Fleet.


Musical credits: Elmer Cat, Madonna, Norberto Schuffeneger, Nick Storring,
DJ Touche, Pond 5, Evan Doorbell (bonus remixes)


Other: Technica Museum of Slovenia, Museum Based In Ramsgate Kent, Wikimedia

Commons,, AT&T Archives.


Main References: Bell System Technical Journal, Bell Laboratories Record,,,,,,,,,,   

Patents: E.B. Craft, patent US1156671A, first flat spring relay (1915),

A.G. Bell first telephone patent, US174465A (1876), A. B. Strowger, patent US0447918, first selector stepping switch (1891), plus many others called out on specific pages herein. 

Thanks also to Tim Giessel (woodwork) and May Kovalick (artistic consulting) for help on the Demo device. Voice narration service from DeepZen .


Design and Construction: Al Kovalick     -- For comments go Contact.


10/2023 Santa Clara, Ca. 


(telephone relays, interactive demos, AT&T, Western Electric, Ericsson, sound media, electromechanical, Crossbar, Panel, 7A Rotary, Step-by-Step central office and exchange history with images)

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